Punjab Government took initiatives in developing and demonstrating workable and low cost sewerage system in the form of small bore sewerage system and cost effective sewage treatment technologies. Initially, Punjab Govt. executed small bore drainage system in three villages of state in 2004-05, besides conventional sewerage system was also commissioned in 4 villages both with the assistance of Punjab Govt. and NRI’s.
Project has a provision to finance on pilot basis construction of small bore sewers and sewerage schemes in about 100 villages which already have good household sanitation coverage but the release of septic tank outflow on the village streets and open drains creates a serious health hazard. The provision also includes rehabilitation of village ponds in 100 villages where sewerage schemes would be taken up to improve water disposal systems and reduce environmental degradation.
The main reasons for adopting small bore sewerage system are:
- High capital cost of conventional sewerage system
- Availability of less quantity of waste water in rural areas for effective functioning of conventional sewerage system
- Small bore sewer works even with small quantity of waste water as after intercepting chamber (ICs) only waste water free from sediments is to be carried out. Sufficient slope is needed from generation point to ICs only
Important features of small bore sewerage system :
- The total cost of sewerage system including treatment is in the range of Rs. 2400-2700 per capita. ( as worked out in the year 2005-06 ) Department is exploring the possibility of using ferro-cement / masonary ICs tanks so as to reduce the cost. DWSS proposes to have common intercepting chamber for 4-5 houses wherever feasible for further reducing the cost of system
- Department proposes to recruit social organizations / support organization for creating awareness amongst the villagers for taking connections for disposal of waste water and readiness to pay the user charges
- Power requirement in case of small bore is comparatively less than the conventional sewerage system. Department proposes to provide backup system in the form of generator for all sewerage schemes
- Department plans to provide trolley mounted vacuum sludge pumps (costing Rs. 60,000- 70,000) for periodical cleaning the septic tanks which would be handed over to GPWSCs for maintenance. Cleaning of septic tanks/ICs is to be done once in 3-4 years. Alternatively, contract for desludging the ICs can be awarded block-wise or for 6-7 villages to private enterprenurs. 6-7 villages would have 1200-1500 ICs and de-sludging 2-3 septic tanks per day with trolley mounted vacuum pump is quite feasible. De-sludging of one ICs may approximately cost Rs 350 thereby additional O&M expense of Rs 10 per month per household
The cost of any component within the individual household / upto sewer is to be borne by beneficiary itself. However, option for conventional sewerage system would also be given in few cases where waste water generation is 100lpcd or more due to presence of large number of submersible sets in individual houses.
Following factors are to be kept in view while selecting the habitations for sanitation coverage:
- Village habitation donates land required for sewage and sludge treatment.
- Village habitation should have at least 70% coverage with septic tanks.
- Water Supply Services in the village are operated and managed by GPWSC with operational sustainability as follows:
- 100% households provided with private connections
- Sound tariff policy adopted
- 100% collection efficiency
- Water supply maintained with minimal service breakdown
- Sound financial management
- Regular meeting of GPWSC held and records are well kept
- Operations information is disclosed on regular basis