a) Reverse Osmosis Plants
Potable water is assured throughout the year for drinking & cooking requirements, with installation of Reverse Osmosis Systems (1885) in the problematic villages:
- Served through canal based water supply schemes and located at the tail of the canal network (mainly in Southern District of Punjab) experiencing shortage of canal raw water during peak summer season & no demand period of crops.(450 commissioned + 189 in progress = Total 639)
Served through tube-well based water supply schemes where Total Dissolved Solids are beyond 800 ppm.
(693 commissioned + 309 in progress = Total 1002)
Where uranium has been found to be above the permissible limits in the drinking water T/wells.
(55 commissioned + 112 in progress + 74 Planned = Total 241)
Where Heavy Metal has been detected in the drinking water.(3 in progress)
Salient features of Reverse Osmosis Plants are as under.
A nominal rate of Rs. 0.10 per Litre shall be charged from the consumers. Thus by spending nominal amount, the villagers are able to get potable water of high standards which is reliable even in peak summer season when demand for drinking water grow manifold.
The executing agencies shall be engaged not only to build the plants but also to operate and maintain these plants for 7 years free of cost.
Brief Insight of the RO Process:
The Process: - The Reverse Osmosis process depends upon a semi-permeable membrane through which pressurized water is forced. Reverse Osmosis, in simple words, is the opposite of natural osmosis process of water. Osmosis is the name for tendency of the water to migrate from a weaker saline solution to a stronger saline solution, gradually equalizing the saline composition of each solution when a semi-permeable membrane separates the two solutions. In Reverse Osmosis, water is forced to move from a stronger saline solution to a weaker saline solution, again through a semi- permeable membrane, because molecules of salt are physically larger than water molecules. The membrane blocks the passage of salt particles. The end result is desalinated water on the other side. In addition to salt particles, this process is also capable of removing selected number of drinking water contaminants depending upon its physical size. As a result, Reverse Osmosis has been touted as an effective drinking water purification method for the specific areas where ground water is highly saline & there is also non availability of assured surface water. It has also been observed that water samples collected from Reverse Osmosis System show reduction in uranium concentration.
b) Tube-well based Fluoride Removal System
One districts of the state is affected by Fluorosis due to the high fluoride content, in potable water. Fluorosis is caused by continuous ingestion of water containing fluorides in excess of 1.5 mg/1limit specified by the WorId Health Organisation. It is a crippling disease that affects the dental and skeletal structures of the body besides other organs and systems, it retards growth and in severe cases leads to paralysis and death.
Therefore to meet with the minimum drinking and cooking water requirement the Fluoride Removal System has been installed in district Sangrur.
Fluoride Removal System is an adsorption process wherein the fluorides present in underground water gets adsorbed by special food grade Fluoride removal resins FR – 10, developed by Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. On exhaustion of the resin bed, it has to be regenerated with alum solution.
For regeneration, the unit is initially backwashed with treated water and then regenerated with alum solution. After regeneration the resin bed is rinsed with treated water. The backwash and the rinse water are disposed off in the drain.
When Power pump is operated, the water passes through the unit. It comes in contact with the filter media, which has a capacity to bring down fluoride concentration below 1.00 ppm. When the treated water shows fluoride concentration above 1.00 ppm unit need to be regenerated.
Following are the important features of Defluoridation Plant:
• Does not require electricity
• Economical, Sturdy, Simple to operate
• Produces consistent quantity and quality of treated water.
• No chemicals are used to remove iron from water. Only water is used to back wash accumulated iron from the media.
• No elaborate pre-treatment required.
• Light weight equipment, easy to install. Does not require concrete foundation.
• Single lever operated multi-port vale is user friendly and easy to operate.
• Plastic pressure vessel and piping are corrosion resistant and do not require maintenance.
• Uses much lesser quantities of chemicals - requires only alum
• Does not require skilled manpower
• Resin Life: Around 3 yrs
• Ideal for rural applications